Practitioners note that the shipping industry continues to see reduced activity but the aviation field remains strong, particularly in financing. The lack of significant legislative changes means the workload has remained fairly steady this year with general transportation advice on the regulatory side a common field of work. However, those specialised in aviation finance predict an even greater appetite for capital markets as ECA financing becomes ever more expensive. We list 28 transport specialists in this edition.
2013 saw several important referrals to the ECJ regarding what constitutes use of a trademark in situations where the mark as used differs from the mark as registered, or where it is used only as part of a more complex trademark. Furthermore, in France the defence of lack of use of a trademark has become increasingly common and many infringement actions based on the use of key words by competitors have been dismissed. We identify 22 leading lawyers in this chapter.
With the exception of Germany, France is the largest exporter and importer in Europe. In June 2013, France’s trade deficit stood at €4.44 billion due to a sharp decline in imports. The legal market remains small in size but is “highly specialised”. We feature four of the leading lawyers in this chapter.
Outsourcing continues to be an extremely active area of work for lawyers in France and practitioners have noted an uptick in the amount of cloud computing work. With economic recovery still sluggish at best, the upcoming year will see an absence of traditional IT deals, but cloud computing and data protection will likely take its place. In this chapter we list 41 “first-class” practitioners.
In 2013, the French government considered the implementation of major changes to the tax law on broadcast rights for sporting events, changes which could have a major effect on the amount of tax to be paid by commercial broadcasters. Additionally, sporting clubs will be impacted by the proposed imposition of a 75 per cent tax on annual salaries of over €1 million euros, plans for which were approved by France’s highest court in December 2013. Football clubs in Ligue 1 will be heavily affected by the changes, and French football clubs’ union UCPF vigorously opposes the law. Subsequently, there is the possibility of further disputes over the planned legislation in 2014. Our research identifies four “specialists” in the field.
Practitioners have noted the continued uptick in activity in the real estate space and this looks set to endure given the number of reforms currently under way to increase access to housing and improve planning. Another significant law, the Loi Duflot will come into effect in 2016 and will introduce among other things a cap on rental prices and agent fees. We list 38 lawyers in this chapter.
Case law in this field is evolving rapidly with recent cases establishing important principles concerning challenge procedures and available remedies. Reforms have also taken place aimed at simplifying the award procedures by reforming the regulation of advertising public procurement contracts. In this chapter we identify seven specialists.
The project finance sector has seen an active year, with lawyers citing their geographical position as extremely useful for involvement in projects in Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa, all of which are seeing significant interest and investment. In this section we recognise 19 individuals who are greatly respected for their work in this field.
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